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Friday, 30 January 2015
He was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on the challenges of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, resulting in the invention of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces. These were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos in 1968. His Law, the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him.
In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of "having a steady job" (such as his position at NASA's Ames Research Center) he would focus on making the world a better place, especially through the use of computers. He was therefore a committed, vocal proponent of the development and use of computers and computer networks to help cope with the world’s increasingly urgent and complex problems. He embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed "bootstrapping strategy". He designed the strategy to accelerate the rate of innovation of his lab.
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Thursday, 29 January 2015
This son on a locomotive driver initially interested in lock-smithy changed the way of commute via road !!!
He was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the petrol-powered automobile, and together with Bertha, pioneering founder of the coveted automobile manufacturer. He received a patent for his work and all the processes that made the internal combustion engine feasible for use in an automobile. In 1879, his first engine patent was granted to him, and in 1886, he was granted a patent for his first automobile.
He was born in Mühlburg, now a borough of Karlsruhe, Baden, which is part of modern Germany, to a locomotive driver. Despite living in near poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. He attended the local Grammar School in Karlsruhe and was a prodigious student.
He had originally focused his studies on locksmithing, but eventually followed his father’s steps toward locomotive engineering.
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Wednesday, 28 January 2015
He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari meaning The Lion of Punjab also known as "Sher-E- Punjab" in Hindi. He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages. He was part of the Lal Bal Pal trio.
He was born in Dhudike which is now in Moga district, Punjab on 28 January 1865. His father, Radha Krishan, was an Urdu teacher.
He advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods in 1907.
The last years of the nineteenth century, saw a radical sensibility emerge among some Indian Intellectuals. This position burst onto the national all-India scene in 1905 with the Swadeshi movement - the term is usually rendered as "self reliance" or "self sufficiency".
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Tuesday, 27 January 2015
The society that has shown the world through fresh eyes; has amazing perspective depicted through NGC !!!
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world. The National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel. On January 13, 1888, 33 explorers and scientists gathered at the Cosmos Club, a private club then located on Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C., to organize "a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge."
Its interests include geography, archaeology and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. The National Geographic Society's historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world's cultural, historical, and natural resources.
The Society has published maps, atlases, filmstrips, and numerous books. It also lends its license to other publishers, for example to Thames & Kosmos for a line of science kits. In October 2007, National Geographic created a new Global Media group composed of its magazine, book publishing, television, film, music, radio, digital media and maps units.
Monday, 26 January 2015
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments (out of 120 Constitution Amendment Bills). Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is widely regarded as the architect of the Indian Constitution.The Constitution, in its current form (September 2012), consists of a preamble, 25 parts containing 448 articles, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments to date.
The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following Parts:
Part I – Union and its Territory
Part II – Citizenship.
Part III – Fundamental Rights.
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy.
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties.
Part V – The Union.
Part VI – The States.
Part VII – States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed).
Part VIII – The Union Territories
Part IX – The Panchayats.
Part IXA – The Municipalities.
Part IXB – The Co-operative Societies.
Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States.
Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States.
Part XIVA – Tribunals.
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals
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Sunday, 25 January 2015
This father of the Nuclear programme had a long journey uplifting India's status to higher technological advancements & research!!!
Colloquially known as "father of Indian nuclear programme", He was the founding director of two well-known research institutions, namely the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) and the Trombay Atomic Energy Establishment (now named after him); both sites were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which he also supervised as its director.
Conducting experiments on particles which also released tremendous amount of radiation, was his lifelong passion, and his leading edge research and experiments brought great laurels to Indian physicists who particularly switched their fields to nuclear physics, one of the most notable being Piara Singh Gill.
Tata Trust for establishing 'a vigorous school of research in fundamental physics'. In his proposal he wrote :
“ There is at the moment in India no big school of research in the fundamental problems of physics, both theoretical and experimental. There are, however, scattered all over India competent workers who are not doing as good work as they would do if brought together in one place under proper direction. It is absolutely in the interest of India to have a vigorous school of research in fundamental physics, for such a school forms the spearhead of research not only in less advanced branches of physics but also in problems of immediate practical application in industry.
If much of the applied research done in India today is disappointing or of very inferior quality it is entirely due to the absence of sufficient number of outstanding pure research workers who would set the standard of good research and act on the directing boards in an advisory capacity ... Moreover, when nuclear energy has been successfully applied for power production in say a couple of decades from now, India will not have to look abroad for its experts but will find them ready at hand. I do not think that anyone acquainted with scientific development in other countries would deny the need in India for such a school as I propose.
The subjects on which research and advanced teaching would be done would be theoretical physics, especially on fundamental problems and with special reference to cosmic rays and nuclear physics, and experimental research on cosmic rays. It is neither possible nor desirable to separate nuclear physics from cosmic rays since the two are closely connected theoretically."
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Friday, 23 January 2015
He came fourth in the ICS examination and was selected but he did not want to work under an alien government which would mean serving the British. As he stood on the verge of taking the plunge by resigning from the Indian Civil Service in 1921, he wrote to his elder brother Sarat: "Only on the soil of sacrifice and suffering can we raise our national edifice". Finally, he resigned from his civil service job on 23 April 1921 and returned to India.
He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was: "Give me blood and I will give you freedom". Jai Hind, or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces.
His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India, travelling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India.
With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA), formed with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma. Swami Vivekananda's teachings on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired him from his very young days. He formed ,"The Provisional Government of Free India" , or, more simply, Free India(Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in Singapore in 1943 and was supported by Japan. Azad Hind was a part of a political movement originating in the 1940s outside of India with the purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British Rule.
The true judgement of success or failure of the movement remains open to historians. However, the true extent to which the INA's activities influenced the decision to leave India is mirrored by the views of Clement Attlee, the British prime minister at the time of India's Independence. Attlee cites several reasons, the most important of which were the INA activities of his, which weakened the very foundation of the British Empire in India, and the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny which made the British realise that the support of the Indian armed forces could no longer be relied upon.
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Thursday, 15 January 2015
James Naismith (November 6, 1861 – November 28, 1939) was a Canadian American sports coach and innovator. He invented the sport of basketball in 1891. He wrote the original basketball rulebook, founded the University of Kansas basketball program, and lived to see basketball adopted as an Olympic demonstration sport in 1904 and as an official event at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as well as the birth of both the National Invitation Tournament (1938) and the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship (1939).
At Springfield YMCA, Naismith struggled with a rowdy class which was confined to indoor games throughout the harsh New England winter and thus was perpetually short-tempered. Under orders from Dr. Luther Gulick, head of Springfield YMCA Physical Education, Naismith was given 14 days to create an indoor game that would provide an "athletic distraction": Gulick demanded that it would not take up much room, could help its track athletes to keep in shape and explicitly emphasized to "make it fair for all players and not too rough."
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Wednesday, 14 January 2015
In order to save his children from his unpleasant experiences on the war-front, this civil engineer created Dr. Dolittle!!!
Hugh John Lofting (14 January 1886 – 26 September 1947) was a British author, trained as a civil engineer, who created the character of Doctor Dolittle, one of the classics of children's literature.
He travelled widely as a civil engineer, before enlisting in the Irish Guards regiment of the British Army to serve in the First World War. Not wishing to write to his children about the brutality of the war, he wrote imaginative letters which later became the foundation of the successful Doctor Dolittle novels for children.
The series has been adapted for film and television many times, for stage twice, and also for radio. His other writing works include, "The Story of Mrs Tubbs (1923) and Tommy, Tilly, and Mrs. Tubbs (1936) , Porridge Poetry (1924), Noisy Nora (1929) & The Twilight of Magic (1930) .
Tuesday, 13 January 2015
Oskar Minkowski (13 January 1858 – 18 July 1931) held a professorship at the University of Breslau and is most famous for his research on diabetes.
Minkowski worked with Josef von Mering on the study of diabetes at the University of Strasbourg. Their landmark study in 1889 in dogs induced diabetes by removing their pancreas. It was Minkowski who performed the operation and made the crucial link to recognize that the symptoms of the treated dogs were due to diabetes.
Monday, 12 January 2015
Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or mental discipline, or philosophy—by one, or more, or all of these—and be free - This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendra Nath Datta at 3, Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti festival. He contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. On 1 May 1897 in Calcutta, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission for social service. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the people, and resolved to uplift the nation.In India, Vivekananda is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday is celebrated as National Youth Day in India.
Narendra was naughty and restless as a child, and his parents often had difficulty controlling him. His mother said, "I prayed to Shiva for a son and he has sent me one of his demons".
He drew inspiration from the words of the Gautama Buddha:
Go forward without a path,Fearing nothing, caring for nothing!
Wandering alone, like the rhinoceros!
Even as a lion, not trembling at noises,
Even as the wind, not caught in the net,
Even as the lotus leaf, untainted by water,
Do thou wander alone, like the rhinoceros!
He told a Muslim religion scholar that one significant feature of the Quran is, though it was written a thousand years ago, the book was free from "interpolation" and retained its original purity.
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Sunday, 11 January 2015
International conference on Applied Economics and Finance: February 26, 2015 in association with The Indian Econometric Society
GITSIB invites you to the 1st International conference on Applied Economics and Finance (ICAEF) on February 26, 2015 in association with The Indian Econometric Society (TIES) at GITAM School of International Business (GSIB), GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
All who wish to participate in the conference should mail a soft copy of abstract/research paper on(or) by January 15, 2015.
- Prof. K L Krishna (Econometrician, former president TIES)
- Prof. Ganti Subrahmayam(Former director, NIBM)
- Prof. J V M Sarma (Professor, University of Hyderabad, former member in finance commission)
- Prof. V L Rao (GITAM Chair Professor of International Trade and Finance)
- Financial Economics/Econometrics
- International Business/Finance
- Development Economics
- Behavioural Economics/Finance
- Monetary Economics
- Public Economics
- Industrial Economics
- Submission of Abstract: January 15, 2015
- Submission of Full paper: January 30, 2015
- Intimation of Acceptance Letter: February 10, 2015
- Submission of Registration Form: February 15, 2015
- Conference Date: February 26, 2015
Friday, 9 January 2015
Thursday, 8 January 2015
An interesting perspective lead him to co-author a book,"What is Mathematics?" which was praised by Albert Einstein!!!
Commenting upon his analysis of experimental results from in-laboratory soap film formations, Courant believed that the existence of a physical solution does not obviate the need for mathematical proof. Here is a quote from Courant on his mathematical perspective:
"Empirical evidence can never establish mathematical existence--nor can the mathematician's demand for existence be dismissed by the physicist as useless rigor. Only a mathematical existence proof can ensure that the mathematical description of a physical phenomenon is meaningful." - Richard Courant
Richard Courant (January 8, 1888 – January 27, 1972) was a German mathematician. He is best known by the general public for the book What is Mathematics?, co-written with Herbert Robbins, which was praised by Albert Einstein, stating, "A lucid representation of the fundamental concepts and methods of the whole field of mathematics...Easily understandable."
In 1936, after one year at Cambridge Courant accepted a professorship at New York University in New York City. There he founded an institute for graduate studies in applied mathematics. The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (as it was renamed in 1964) is now one of the most respected research centers in applied mathematics.
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Wednesday, 7 January 2015
Charles Samuel "Chas" Addams (January 7, 1912 – September 29, 1988) was an American cartoonist known for his darkly humorous and macabre characters. Some of the recurring characters, who became known as the Addams Family, have been the basis for spin-offs in several other media. His father encouraged him to draw, and Addams did cartoons for the Westfield High School student literary magazine, Weathervane. A house on Elm Street, and another on Dudley Avenue that police once caught him breaking into, are said to be the inspiration for the Addams Family mansion in his cartoons.
Addams died on September 29, 1988, at St. Clare's Hospital and Health Center in New York City, having suffered a heart attack while still in his car after parking it. As he had requested, a wake was held rather than a funeral; he had wished to be remembered as a "good cartoonist". Addams drew more than 1,300 cartoons over the course of his life. In 1961, Addams received, from the Mystery Writers of America, a Special Edgar Award for his body of work. Filmmaker Alfred Hitchcock was a friend of Addams, and owned two pieces of original Addams art.
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Tuesday, 6 January 2015
Thinking rationally and innovative bent helped him invent and build and empire on INSTANT NOODLES !!!
Momofuku Ando (March 5, 1910 – January 5, 2007) was a Taiwanese-Japanese businessman who founded Nissin Food Products Co., Ltd. He is famed as the inventor of instant noodles and Cup Noodles. On August 25, 1958, at the age of 48, and after months of trial and error experimentation to perfect his flash-frying method, Ando marketed the first package of precooked instant noodles. Called Chikin Ramen, after the original chicken flavor, it was originally considered a luxury item with a price of ¥35, around six times that of traditional udon and soba noodles at the time.
Ando began the sales of his most famous product, Cup Noodle (Kappu Nūdoru, on September 18, 1971 with the masterstroke of providing a waterproof polystyrene container. As prices dropped, instant ramen soon became a booming business. Worldwide demand reached 98 billion servings in 2007.
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Monday, 5 January 2015
This enthusiastic sailor discovered penicillin by accident & was first non-medic to receive honorary doctorate in Oxford's 800 year history!!!
Norman George Heatley (10 January 1911 – 5 January 2004) was a member of the team of Oxford University scientists who developed penicillin. Norman Heatley developed the back extraction technique for efficiently purifying penicillin in bulk. He was awarded the unusual distinction of an honorary Doctorate of Medicine from Oxford University, the first given to a non-medic in Oxford's 800-year history.
As a boy, he was an enthusiastic sailor of a small boat on the River Deben; an experience which gave him a lifelong love of sailing. Alexander Fleming had first discovered penicillin by accident in 1928, but at that time believed it had little application.
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi, including penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (oral use), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use). Read more & Watch the video...
Saturday, 3 January 2015
Married at the age of nine; started education after that;started school for girls; died helping people save from plague !!!
Savitribai Jyotirao Phule (January 3, 1831 – March 10, 1897) was a social reformer, who, along with her husband, Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, played an important role in improving women's rights in India during the British Rule. They pioneered the campaign for women’s education, starting the first school for girls at Pune in 1848. Savitribai was the first female teacher of the first women's school in India and also considered as the pioneer of modern Marathi poetry. In 1852 she opened a school for Untouchable girls. Stones would be thrown at her and she would be orally abused but still she continued teaching.
SavitriBai set up a school for SagunaAau on May 1, 1847in a backward community.
Social reforms: Savitribai was not only involved in educational activities of Jyotirao but also in every social struggle that he launched. Once Jyotirao stopped a pregnant lady from committing suicide, promising her to give her child his name after it was born. Savitribai readily accepted the lady in her house and willingly assured to help her deliver the child. Savitribai and Jyotirao later on adopted this child who then grew up to become a doctor. Savitribai Phule worked hard to keep plague patients alive. In fact, she was so involved that she died due to the infection on March 10, 1897.
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Friday, 2 January 2015
Starting from the ground, geology; his interest surfaced the sky ending him discovering Stratosphere & Troposphere; founding aerology!!!
Léon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (November 5, 1855 in Paris, France – January 2, 1913 in Cannes, France) was a French meteorologist and a pioneer in the field of aerology. Together with Richard Assmann (1845-1918), he is credited as co-discoverer of the stratosphere, as both men announced their discovery during the same time period in 1902. Teisserenc de Bort pioneered the use of unmanned instrumented balloons and was the first to identify the region in the atmosphere around 8-17 kilometers of height where the lapse rate reaches zero, known today as the tropopause.
The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
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Thursday, 1 January 2015
With the new year around the corner; having celebrated it for the eternity welcomed by people, the term made me restless. What exactly is a year; where did it come from ? This is what I found out: Read on...
The word "year" is also used of periods loosely associated but not strictly identical with either the astronomical or the calendar year, such as the seasonal year, the fiscal year or the academic year, etc.
The term year can mean the orbital period of any Planet, Venus completes its own orbit. The International System of Units does not propose one. A common abbreviation in international use is (a for Latin annus), in English y or yr. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, hours of daylight, and consequently vegetation and fertility. Generally four seasons are considered: Summer, winter, autumn and Spring.
May this new year take you beyond the horizon of happiness, Joy, abundance of laughter you wished for.
More importantly, may you be bestowed with all the strength to do what you wish and yearn to do.
WISH YOU A PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR !!!!!
Stay Gyaat !!!!